The role of second-hand equipment in packaging and

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Packaging and printing industry: the role of second-hand equipment in economic development many experts and scholars have made different discussions on the role of second-hand equipment in economic development on various occasions. However, in the practice of China's economic development, second-hand equipment has always been like a folk saying when entertaining guests: dog meat cannot be served. Why does this happen? What role can second-hand equipment play in a country's economic development? Here are some feelings and opinions in work

I. definition of second-hand equipment

second hand equipment is not equal to old equipment, backward equipment or obsolete equipment. A clear definition of second-hand equipment should be commercial. In the transaction, as long as the equipment user (buyer) does not purchase directly from the equipment manufacturer, there will be a re transaction. In fact, this re transaction is also known as the transfer trade. After two sales, the trading markers become second-hand. Of course, in domestic economic activities, people have established that second-hand equipment is used equipment, old equipment or obsolete equipment. However, in international trade, it is divided into 2nd handmachine, used machine, old machine and eliminated machine. These appellations are clearly defined. Of course, in international trade, 2nd hand machine can also refer to used equipment. In fact, the most important thing about second-hand equipment is its use value. As long as a kind of equipment has use value and the owner (buyer) can use its use value to create wealth, such equipment has value

generally speaking, new equipment refers to equipment manufactured with high technology, new technology, new materials and new processes. Generally speaking, the production efficiency of new equipment is very high, and the quality of products is guaranteed. However, in production activities, it is often not a certain kind of equipment that determines the whole production process. For example, the printing equipment is a very important tool in the process of printing production. The printing equipment has now developed to the level of CIP and CTP. However, whether the printing equipment is brand-new or used second-hand equipment, as well as the application of pre press plate making processing technology, plate quality, ink quality, and the quality of substrate, are more important factors that restrict the printing quality and product quality, The operation technology of workers and other factors. Printing, whether in the packaging industry or in the publishing industry, can not provide final products, but also needs post press processing. No matter how good the printing quality is, the quality of post press processing is not good, and the quality of the final product is still not good. For any enterprise, its ultimate goal is to sell its products at market prices to make profits. As any enterprise can no longer monopolize the price in the global economic activities, the production cost must be involved when the enterprise sells its products

the above description is not only applicable to printing equipment. Everyone engaged in economic activities will consider the impact of the above factors on profits (here I am willing to choose profits to demonstrate the necessity of second-hand equipment). In economic activities, cost, profit, equipment, materials and market requirements for product quantity and quality are all restricting each other. The correct definition of second-hand equipment is very important to achieve the market goal of obtaining the maximum profit at the minimum cost. As long as the use of second-hand equipment can achieve the above purposes, it is believed that no one will exclude second-hand equipment or underestimate its use value

I once remembered that I accompanied the user to visit an Italian printing and packaging enterprise in 1993. The factory is located in poderone, northern Italy, with 230 employees and an annual output value of US $230million. Its main products include cigarette packaging, drug packaging and cosmetics packaging. At that time, I saw two gravure printing production lines manufactured in 1978 in the factory, one of which was a 6-color plus line large sheet slitting production line for flip boxes and strip bags, and the other was a 5-color roll to roll printing production line for printing cigarette bags. In Europe, equipment depreciation is generally 7 years. These two lines have been used for 15 years and are still used as the main equipment, which makes my users very curious. The user asked the person in charge of the factory why such old equipment is still in use? Unexpectedly, we were even more surprised by the answer from the factory leader. The two lines turned out to be a second-hand gravure line with 11 color roll to roll printing. When the factory expanded its production scale, the factory bought it back and split it into two lines, which were equipped with a unwinder and a slitter respectively, to print cigarette packaging. The tension and registration system was updated in 1991 and 1992. In this way, less than 15% of the price of the new machine is used to add two printing lines, and the production is carried out in two shifts every day. The person in charge of the factory replied that in Italy, people do not care about the old and new equipment, but value its use value and maintenance cost. As long as the maintenance cost can be kept at a very low level, the old equipment can still create value. Finally, the user asked him how many years he was going to spend. The person in charge said that as long as he could continue to create profits for the enterprise, he would continue to use it. This experience is just to show that the use value of second-hand equipment can not be ignored

on the other hand, choosing second-hand equipment means choosing time, seizing business opportunities in the shortest time, and taking the lead in the rapidly changing market. We often say that in a market economy, time is money. In order to expand the production capacity and increase the output in the shortest time, in addition to increasing the capacity of existing equipment, the fastest way is to use appropriate second-hand equipment. Usually, a second-hand equipment will be 4 to 8 months faster than the newly ordered equipment (different types of equipment, different times). Take gravure printing machine as an example. Generally, the production cycle of gravure printing machine with 6-color standard configuration is 6 to 10 months. For second-hand equipment, only one dismantling time needs to be considered

II. The role of second-hand equipment in economic development. Both developing countries including China and developed countries like the United States need second-hand equipment in their economic development. The necessity for the existence of second-hand equipment lies in its important complementary role in economic development and resource allocation. In the United States, there are more than 500 enterprises engaged in second-hand equipment sales and leasing services. Although these enterprises have different scales and different types of equipment, they have played an important role in reallocating production resources and promoting economic development in the economic development of the United States. The highly liberalized market economy has enabled the second-hand equipment market in the United States to form a considerable scale. The equipment purchase of any company is its own independent economic activity, which is determined according to the production needs of its own company. Here, the main factor affecting the purchase of equipment is the economic benefit. We will never blindly seek novelty, greatness, refinement and perfection in the purchase of production equipment. Enterprises develop themselves according to the development law of market economy. The product is determined by the market demand, and the product design is carried out according to the specific user range and user needs of the product. When an enterprise purchases equipment, it usually has three ways: leasing, second-hand equipment purchase, and new equipment purchase. Enterprises generally decide the most economical way to purchase equipment according to their own needs. Even large-scale enterprises like Boeing add equipment according to product orders. When the production task is implemented, first of all, they will go to the second-hand equipment market to purchase or lease the equipment they need. Once the second-hand equipment market can not meet the requirements, and it is necessary for production, we will consider purchasing new equipment. In the United States, as the second-hand equipment market is very mature, no matter whether the enterprise rents or purchases the second-hand equipment, it can return them to the second-hand equipment market when the equipment is idle after the production task is completed. Second hand equipment can flow in the market, which is also a remarkable feature of the American second-hand market and an important driving force for its continuous development and expansion

for developing countries, second-hand equipment can not only play an important complementary role in the reallocation of production resources and the promotion of economic development, but also play a connecting role in the process of using new technologies. But why do you say that? Here is an example in the work. 19 and its utilization range is unparalleled. From 1991 to 1995, China's paper packaging and printing industry popularized and introduced rotogravure printing machines on a large scale. In just five years, hundreds of rotogravure printing production lines were introduced nationwide, mainly for the production of cigarette packaging. During this period, the packaging and printing industry has not yet had a comprehensive understanding of the paper packaging gravure printing technology. The printing factory in Dalian put forward the idea that intaglio printing is to print plastic products and offset printing is paper printing, while some areas in the South put forward the idea that intaglio printing can replace other printing and that high-end cigarette packaging can only be intaglio printing. The above two points of view reflect that the understanding of new technology is still vague. On the one hand, gravure printing is completely rejected in paper printing, and on the other hand, gravure printing is used to replace other printing methods. Of course, the emergence of these understandings, on the one hand, is related to the promotion of manufacturers and sellers, on the other hand, is related to the lack of promotion of paper gravure printing technology. However, if new equipment is introduced, the promotion cost is too high

Taking Yunnan Province as an example, about 50 new gravure printing production lines were introduced during that period, with an average price of about US $1.8 million, a total of about US $90million. However, due to the market, enterprise management, technology and other reasons, the three steps are flexibly applied according to the site conditions, making almost half of the equipment in the state of shutdown or semi shutdown. At that time, some printing houses in Yunnan spent tens of millions of yuan to introduce gravure printing production lines before saying goodbye to the era of lead and fire. As a result, the equipment can not be used well after it comes in, and the enterprise also bears a heavy debt burden. Of course, gravure printing is not an esoteric technology, but if a small number of new equipment is used with second-hand equipment at the beginning, it may produce better results and benefits, and the cost will be much lower

in addition, Guangxi Nanning Fenghuang Paper Co., Ltd. invested 2billion yuan to introduce a pulping production line with an annual output of 100000 tons, Guangxi Hezhou Heda Paper Co., Ltd. invested 1billion yuan to introduce a pulping production line with an annual output of 50000 tons, while Guangxi Liujiang paper mill only spent 300million yuan to introduce a second-hand pulping production line with an annual output of 170000 tons. First of all, it is not difficult to see the price advantage of second-hand equipment from the investment cost. What about technology? As the primary investment in papermaking equipment is very large, even foreign papermaking enterprises will continue to upgrade the equipment according to the needs in production. And many times, the emergence of second-hand paper machines is entirely due to market reasons, rather than technical reasons. Similarly, the same situation also occurs in other industries. Especially in developed countries, due to the factors of enterprise management and personnel quality, the maintenance and equipment condition of most second-hand equipment are still very good

although some parts of used equipment need to be updated or supplemented, the total cost is much lower than that of new equipment. In particular, it should be emphasized that the selection of second-hand equipment is of great significance to seize market opportunities. stay消化不良怎么治疗

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